Imports

Static Imports #

The simplest use-case for imports is wanting to call a method that is an @export of another method. This is the cornerstone for abstraction and interesting applications. To do this, you simply have to use the import keyword and the name of the smart contract.

NOTE: from x import y and starred imports are not supported at this time. Importing a smart contract imports all of the @export methods from it and none of the variables.

def complex_app():
    @export
    def return_1():
        return 1

    @export
    def return_2():
        return 2

    @export
    def return_3():
        return 3

def import_example():
    import complex_app

    @export
    def calculate():
        a = complex_app.return_2()
        b = complex_app.return_3()

        return a * b

Believe it or not, calculate will return 6.

Dynamic Imports #

Things get interesting when you want to reference contracts that don’t exist at the moment, but will potentially in the future. An example of this could be an exchange application where different assets register to the exchange and can be automatically listed and interacted with if they fit a certain profile.

To do this, we have to use the importlib in the Contracting standard library.

importlib.import_module(name) #

This method behaves similar to the analogous importlib method included in the Python standard library. Calling it will return a module object that has only the @export methods available to call and pass arguments to.

def token_1():
    balances = Hash()
    @construct
    def seed():
        balances['stu'] = 100

    @export
    def send(amount: float, to: str):
        assert balances[ctx.caller] >= amount

        balances[ctx.caller] -= amount
        balances[to] += amount

def token_2():
    balances = Hash()
    @construct
    def seed():
        balances['stu'] = 100

    @export
    def send(amount: float, to: str):
        assert balances[ctx.caller] >= amount

        balances[ctx.caller] -= amount
        balances[to] += amount

def exchange():
    @export
    def send(token: str, amount: float, to: str):
        t = importlib.import_module(token)
        t.send(amount, to)

Luckily, both contracts have the same interface and have a method called send which takes two arguments. How can you tell if this is not the case?

Interface Enforcement #

A smart contract can define an interface to enforce contracts against. Enforcement can be on the methods and/or the variables. Enforcement is ‘weak’ in the sense that a contract can have additional methods or variables and still succeed an interface test.

def exchange():
    token_interface = [
        importlib.Func('send', args=('amount', 'to')),
        importlib.Var('balances', Hash)
    ]

    @export
    def send(token: str, amount: float, to: str):
        t = importlib.import_module(token)
        assert importlib.enforce_interface(t, token_interface)

        t.send(amount, to)

importlib.enforce_interface(module, interface) #

enforce_interface takes two arguments and returns a boolean of whether or not the module fits the interface. An interface is a list of methods and variables that a module must have defined.

importlib.Func(name, args=None, private=False) #

A method definition for an interface list. If a method has no arguments, then none have to be provided. args must be a tuple of strings indicating the keyword arguments in the correct order. Enforcement will fail if arguments on a method are misspelled or out of order. private will define the required method as a private method that does not have an @export decorator above it.

importlib.Var(name, t) #

A variable definition for the name, a string, and the type, which is either Variable or Hash at this point in time.

Examples #

interface_1 = [
    importlib.Func('something', private=True)
]

def valid_contract():
    def something(): # Correct name and private
        return 123

    @export
    def something_else():
        return 456

def invalid_contract():
    @export
    def something(): # Correct name, but exported
        return 123
interface_2 = [
    importlib.Func('func', args=('a', 'b', 'c'))
]

def valid_contract():
    @export
    def func(a: int, b: int, c: int): # Exported method with same name and args in correct order
        return a + b + c

def invalid_contract():
    def func(a, c, b): # Correct name, but private, and keyword arguments are out of order
        return a + b + c

    @export
    def not_func(a: int, b: int, c: int): # Exported and correct keyword args but not the right name
        return a + b + c
interface_3 = [
    importlib.Var('balances', Hash),
    importlib.Var('owner', Variable)
]

def valid_contract():
    balances = Hash()
    owner = Variable()

def invalid_contract():
    balances = Variable() # Incorrect types
    owner = Hash()

def invalid_contract_2():
    bbb = Variable() # Correct types, but misspelled.
    ooo = Hash()

Updated on February 3, 2021